Abuja, the capital of Nigeria, is located on the banks of the Gurara River, a tributary of the Niger River, at the intersection of the states of Niger, Kaduna, Plateau, and Kogi. The Federal Capital Territory covers an area of 7,315 square kilometers. Originally a national tin mining area, a central hub for the central road network, and a distribution center for agricultural and livestock products, Abuja was chosen as the new capital in 1976 to strengthen the connections between the federal government and various regions and ethnic groups. The city was completed in 1991 and is situated on the central plateau with an average elevation of 688 meters, offering a pleasant tropical grassland climate with abundant water sources.
Zuma Rock, located in the northern part of Abuja, Niger State, Nigeria, is a massive standalone rock formation often referred to as the “Gateway to Abuja.” It is depicted on the 100 Naira note in Nigeria. Rising 725 meters with an elevation of 1,125 meters, Zuma Rock has been recognized as one of the Seven Wonders of Africa.
Gurara Waterfalls, situated in the Niger River basin, showcases a magnificent display of water during the rainy season, reminiscent of the grandeur of China’s Yellow River Hukou Waterfall. It is Nigeria’s largest waterfall, attracting numerous visitors annually. Gurara Waterfalls, located in Niger State, is the closest major waterfall to Abuja, accessible by a two-and-a-half-hour drive westward.
Kano, a historical city in Nigeria, is situated on the plateau upstream of the Hadejia River. It served as a key trading post for camel caravans crossing the Sahara Desert between West Africa and North and East Africa. Often referred to as the “Desert Gateway,” Kano is now a major industrial, commercial, and cultural center in northern Nigeria. The city boasts numerous historical landmarks, a pleasant climate, and lush vegetation, making it a popular destination for tourists during the dry season.
Lagos, formerly the capital and the largest port city in Nigeria, is located on the southwest coast along the Gulf of Guinea. Comprising six small islands and a mainland portion, Lagos Island serves as the city center, connected by bridges to Ikoyi Island, Victoria Island, and the mainland. Lagos is a major port city characterized by a network of islands and islets, with Lagos Island at the mouth of the Ogun River.
Calabar, a port city in Nigeria and the capital of Cross River State, is located on the bank of the Calabar River, 64 kilometers from its mouth. With a population of 126,000 (1983), Calabar is a natural harbor capable of accommodating vessels with a draft of 6 meters. The city played a significant role in the slave trade during the 15th to 19th centuries. It served as the capital of Southern Nigeria from 1900 to 1906 and is now a hub for trade and processing of rubber, palm oil, palm kernel, coconut, and other products.
Osun-Osogbo Sacred Grove
The Osun-Osogbo Sacred Grove, abbreviated as Osun-Osogbo, is a sacred forest along the Osun River, near Osogbo in Osun State, Nigeria. It is a settlement of the Yoruba people and one of the last remaining sacred groves in Nigeria amidst rapid urbanization. Designated as a UNESCO World Heritage Site in 2005, it holds cultural and spiritual significance for the Yoruba people.
Sukur Cultural Landscape
The Sukur Cultural Landscape, also known as the Sukur Cultural Landscape, is a UNESCO World Heritage Site in northeastern Nigeria. The cultural landscape includes the palace of the chief, terraced fields, sacred sites, and other cultural remnants. It was inscribed on the UNESCO World Heritage List in 1999.
Ibadan is a city in southwestern Nigeria with a population of approximately 1,432,000 as of 1996. Located northeast of Lagos, the modern city evolved from a military camp established in 1829 by the Ife, Ijesha, and Oyo tribes and was later captured by the British in 1893. It has become a significant commercial center with six parks, including Agodi Gardens. Ibadan is home to the University of Ibadan.
Abeokuta is a city in southwestern Nigeria and the capital of Ogun State. Located 80 kilometers north of Lagos on the left bank of the Ogun River, it has a population of 301,000 as of 1982. With its walled town and remnants of the old city wall still visible, notable landmarks include the Ake (King’s Palace), the Centenary Hall (1930), churches, and mosques. The city hosts secondary schools, a teacher training college, and the University of Lagos Abeokuta Campus (1984), with a focus on science, agriculture, and technology.